Faculty, Global Health
Jointly Appointed, Epidemiology
Physician-scientist trained in epidemiology, with a specialty in internal medicine and subspecialty in infectious diseases. An award-winning author of more than 175 scholarly and evidence-based policy publications; serves as a peer reviewer for numerous scientific journals and is an associate editor for the journals International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease and Emerging Infectious Diseases. A native Puerto Rican, Dr. Castro speaks fluent Spanish, and has frequently served as advisor to the Puerto Rico Department of Health, the Pan American Health Organization, World Health Organization, and several Ministries of Health in countries where TB and HIV constitute major public health problems. In 2008 Dr. Castro was recognized by the Hispanic Officers Advisory Committee, U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps with the prestigious Juan Carlos Finlay award. In October 22, 2011, he was profiled in The Lancet as a “Public Health Hero” by Associate Editor Pamela Das. In March 2014 he received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, North America Region, and the Lifetime Achievement Award conferred by the U.S. Agency for International Development. In June 2016 he received the prestigious CDC Charles C. Shepard Lifetime Science Achievement Award. "This award recognizes individuals for a body of work contributing to public health."
- Professor (Clinical Track), Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health (RSPH), Emory University (June 2014—Present)
- Professor (Joint Appointment), Department of Epidemiology, RSPH, Emory University (September 2015—Present)
- Senior Scientific Advisor on global tuberculosis (TB), Tuberculosis Division, Office of Infectious Diseases, Bureau for Global Health, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) (November 2014—Present)
- Adjunct Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Emory University (September 2000—Present)
- Guest Researcher & Senior Advisor (non-compensated), Center for Epidemiology, Surveillance, and Laboratory Services, CDC (December 2014—Present)
- Deputy Lead, Technical and Implementation Support Unit, Sustained Crisis Response Team (SCRT) for COVID-19, Bureau for Global Health (BGH), U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) (June 8 – July 5, 2020)
- Incident Commander, SCRT for COVID-19 Response, BGH, USAID (September 8 – October 18, 2021)
- 31-year career at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) Commissioned Corps (July 1983—November 2014); promoted to the rank of Assistant Surgeon General (Rear Admiral) in May 2000.
- First Commanding Flag Officer, CDC/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (January 2008—September 2014). Responsibilities: provide leadership, mentorship, and representation for ~ 900 Commissioned Corps Officers assigned to CDC/ATSDR.
- Interim Director, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), CDC (August 2013—August 2014). Responsibilities: Oversaw and led nearly 700 multidisciplinary professionals and an annual budget of approximately $700 million to carry out relevant research, develop evidence-based guidelines, and monitor progress towards meeting the National HIV/AIDS Strategy enacted by President Barak Obama in 2010 – aimed at reducing new HIV infections, increase access to care and improve health outcomes for people living with HIV, and reduce HIV-related health disparities.
- Director, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination (DTBE), NCHHSTP, CDC (January 1993—December 2013). Responsibilities: Directed the team of professionals and technical experts dedicated to tuberculosis (TB) elimination efforts in the United States. During this 20-year tenure, TB incidence in the U.S. was reversed (following an unprecedented resurgence from 1985 until 1992) and steadily declined to its lowest rate in history. Under Dr. Castro’s leadership and guidance, DTBE professionals collaborated with U.S. state and local health departments, academic institutions, and key professional societies (e.g., American Thoracic Society, Infectious Diseases Society of America, and American Academy of pediatrics) to sponsor and implement TB prevention, control, and research activities throughout the nation and other parts of the world. This collective body of work provided the foundation for evidence-based policies used in the U.S. to guide the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of TB and HIV-associated TB.
- Co-Chair of the U.S. Federal Tuberculosis Task Force (Summer 1995—December 2013). Responsibilities: Facilitate inter-agency coordination and collaborations to implement the national strategic plan for the elimination of TB in the U.S. and decrease global morbidity and mortality due to TB. Recognizing the importance and magnitude of global tuberculosis, Dr. Castro also advocated for, and advanced, the U.S. involvement in global TB control efforts.
- Assistant Director for TB and HIV, CDC Office of Associate Director of HIV/AIDS (May—December 1992). Responsibilities: appointed by Dr. James W. Curran to coordinate CDC-wide HIV-associated TB activities.
- Assistant Chief, Epidemiology Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS, National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID) (August 1990—May 1992). Responsibilities: Support the Branch Chief in the provision of technical oversight and monitoring of the planning and implementation of epidemiologic studies into the natural history and routes of transmission of HIV/AIDS, revising the HIV classification system and AIDS case-definition, monitoring trends of HIV-associated opportunistic infections, and responding to diverse outbreak investigations of multidrug-resistant TB affecting mostly HIV-infected people in healthcare facilities and prisons.
- Special Assistant to the Director for Science, Division of HIV/AIDS, NCID (July 1989—August 1990). Responsibilities: Review technical documents for scientific rigor, accuracy, and policy consistency. These documents were prepared by multidisciplinary professional Staff in the Division of HIV/AIDS.
- Medical Epidemiologist, Epidemiology Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS, NCID (July 1985—July 1988). Responsibilities: Collaborate in the design and implementation of epidemiologic studies to identify risk factors for HIV/AIDS (including a community-wide population survey in Belle Glade, Florida), contribute to an investigation of a cluster of patients with CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in the absence of HIV infection, evaluate HIV transmission among plasma donors in Mexico City, Mexico, and evaluate risk factors for HIV acquisition among inmates in correctional facilities.
- Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer with the AIDS Program (now Division of HIV/AIDS), (July 1983—July 1985). Responsibilities: interviewed AIDS patients with no identified risk factors; implement a case-control study to assess risk factors for HIV/AIDS in Haitian-Americans, and contributed to the investigation of a cluster of injection drug users who developed Parkinson’s Disease from exposure to N-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP).
Other Professional Experience:
- Expert Technical Advisor to the World Health Organization (WHO), and International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases
- Founding member, global Stop TB Partnership and member of its Coordinating and Executive Boards.
- Provided U.S. Congressional Testimony on several occasions to describe the serious public health problems posed by TB, HIV-associated TB, and multidrug resistant (MDR) TB – both domestically and globally.
- Provided national and global leadership in the development of a coordinated response since the 2006 description of extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB, an urgent health problem.
- Served in leadership roles as part of CDC’s Public Health Preparedness and Response in the agency's Emergency Operations Center: Chief Health Officer, investigation of airline passengers exposed to patient with MDR/XDR TB, May 2007; Acting Chief Health Officer, response to the 2009 pandemic Influenza A (H1N1), May 2009; and Acting Incident Commander, response to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake in late January 2010 – while the Incident Commander traveled to Haiti.
1518 Clifton Road
Atlanta , GA 30322
Areas of Interest
- Global Health
- Infectious Disease
- Public Health Practice
- Public Health Preparedness and Response
- MD 1980, SUNY Stony Brook School of Medicine
- MSc candidate 1976, Northeastern University
- BSc 1974, University of Puerto Rico
- Internal Medicine 1983, Residency Program in Social Medicine, Monterfiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein Colege of Medicine
- Infectious Diseases 1989, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Emory University
- Epidemiology 1985, EIS Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Public Health Scholar Cohort VII 1999, Public Health Leadership Institute, CDC and University of California
- National Preparedness Leadership Institute Program 2009, School of Public Health and Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
- GH 595H: Humphrey Fellow Practicum
Affiliations & Activities
- Fellow, Infectious Diseases Society of America (FIDSA)
- Associate Editor, Emerging Infectious Diseases
- Associate Editor, International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases
- Editorial Committee, Public Health Reports
- Ex-Officio Member, Technical Evaluation Reference Group, Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria
- Advisor Emeritus, Critical Path to TB Drug Regimens Advisory Panel
- Global Health Committee, IDSA (2018-2022)
- Katrak SS, Li R, Reynolds S, Marks SM, Probst JR, Chorba T, Winthrop K, Castro KG, Goswami ND. , 2022, Association of Tumor Necrosis Factor ? Inhibitor Use with Diagnostic Features and Mortality of Tuberculosis in the United States, 2010–2017, Open Forum Infect Dis, 9, ofab641
- Kyaw NTT, Kumar AMV, Harries AD, Satyanarayana S, Oo NL, Hayat MJ, Castro, KG, Magee MJ, 2022, Synergy between low BMI and hyperglycemia at baseline increases tuberculosis incidence among people living with HIV, AIDS, 36, 117-125
- Hopewell PC, Reichman LB, Castro KG, 2021, Parallels and mutual lessons in tuberculosis and COVID-19 transmission, prevention, and control, Emerg Infect Dis, 27, 681-686
- Valencia M, Becerra JE, Reyes J, Castro KG, 2020, Assessment of Early Mitigation Measures Against COVID-19 in Puerto Rico: March 15-May 15, 2020, PLoS ONE, 15, e0240013
- Haddad MB, Lash TL, Hill AN, Navin TR, Castro KG, Gandhi NR, Magee MJ, 2020, Diabetes and latent tuberculosis infection in the United States: heterogeneity by race/ethnicity, Amer J Preventive Med , 58, 858-863
- Cox H, Shah NS, Castro KG, 2020, Discovering a new drug is only the beginning: progress and challenges in expanding access to bedaquiline for treatment of rifampicin-resistant and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 24, 985-986
- O’son L, Hulland E, Cookson ST, Castro KG, Yaacoub H, 2020, Epidemiology and risk factors for extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Lebanon, Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 24 , 414-419
- Stevenson KA, Podewils LJ, Zishiri VK, Castro KG, Charalambous S. , 2020, HIV prevalence and the cascade of care in five South African correctional facilities, PLOS ONE , 15, e0235178
- Haddad MB, Lash TL, Hill AN, Navin TR, Castro KG, Gandhi NR, Winston CA, 2020, Robustness of NHANES Estimates of the U.S. Prevalence of a Positive Tuberculin Skin Test, Epidemiology, 31, 248-258
- Bayer R, Fairchild AL, Zignol M, Castro KG, 2020, Tuberculosis surveillance and its discontents: the ethical paradox, Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, ,
- Jordan AM, Podewils LJ, Castro KG, Zishir V, Charalambous S. , 2019, Prevalence and risk factors of tuberculosis disease in South African correctional facilities in 2015. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, ,
- Mase SR, Samron R, Ashkin D, Castro KG, Ryan S, Seaworth B, Chen L, Lardizabal A, Tuckey D, Khan A, Posey DL, Chappelle, Temesgen Z, 2019, Tuberculosis Regional Training and Medical Consultation Centers in the United States: Characteristics, Outcomes, and Quality of Medical Consultations, June 1, 2010 ? May 31, 2014, J Clin Tuber Other Mycobact Dis , 17, 100114
- Castro KG, Evans DP, Del Rio C, Curran JW, 2018, Seven Deadly Sins Resulting From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Seven Forbidden Words, Annals of Internal Medicine, Jan 9 [E-Pub Ahead of Print], 1-3
- Haddad MB, Raz KM, Lash TL, Hill AN, Kammerer JS, Winston CA, Castro KG, Gandhi NR, Navin TR , 2018, Simple Estimates for Local Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis Infection, United States, 2011–2015, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24, 1930-1933
- Marais BJ, Walker TM, Cirillo DM, Raviglione M, Abubakar I, van der Werf MJ, Boehme C, Niemann S, Castro KG, Zumla A, Sintchenko V, Crook DW, 2017, Aiming for zero tuberculosis transmission in low-burden countries, Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 5, 846-848
- Bayer R, Castro KG, 2017, Tuberculosis Elimination in the United States - The Need for Renewed Action, NEJM, 377, 1109-1111
- Castro KG, Marks SM, Chen MP, Hill AN, Becerra JE, Miramontes R, Winston CA, Navin TR, Pratt RH, Young KH, LoBue PA, 2016, Estimating tuberculosis cases and their economic costs averted in the United States over the past two decades, Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 20, 926-933
- Shinnick TM, Starks AM, Alexander H, Castro KG, 2015, Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert® MTB/RIF Assay, Expert Rev Mol Diagn, 15, 9-22
- Miramontes R, Hill AN, Yelk Woodruff RS, Lambert LA, Navin TR, Castro KG, LoBue PA, 2015, Tuberculosis Infection in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012, PLOS One, ,
- Moore BK, Posey DL, Maloney SA, Cetron M, Castro K, 2014, Tackling Tuberculosis Abroad: the Key to TB Elimination in the United States, Center for Strategic & International Studies. A Report of the Global Health Policy Center, Center for Strategic and International Studies , ,
- Mase S, Chorba T, LoBue P, Castro K, 2013, Provisional CDC guidelines for the use and safety monitoring of bedaquiline fumarate (Sirturo) for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, MMWR, 62, 1-12
- Cegielski P, Nunn P, Kurbatova EV, Weyer K, Dalton TL, Wares DF, Iademarco MF, Castro KG, Raviglione M, 2012, Challenges and controversies in defining totally drug-resistant tuberculosis, Emerg Infect Dis, 18, doi: 10.3201/eid1811.120526
- Zachariah R, Ford N, Maher D, Bissell K, Van den Bergh R, van den Boogaard W, Reid T, Castro KG, Draguez B, von Schreeb J, Chakaya J, Atun R, Lienhart C, Enarson DA, Harries AD, 2012, Is operational research delivering the goods? The journey to success in low-income countries, Lancet Infect Dis, 12, 415-421
- Hill AN, Becerra JE, Castro KG, 2012, Modelling tuberculosis trends in the USA, Epidemiol Infect, 140, 1862-1872
- Samandari T, Agizew TB, Nyirenda S, Tedia Z, Sibanda T, Shang N, Mosimaneotsile B, Motsamai OI, Bozeman L, Davis MK, Talbot EA, Moeti TL, Moffat HJ, Kilmarx PH, Castro KG, Wells CD, 2011, 6-month versus 36-month isoniazid preventive treatment for tuberculosis in adults with HIV infection in Botswana: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Lancet, 377, 1588-1598
- Castro KG, LoBue P, 2011, Bridging implementation, knowledge, and ambition gaps to eliminate tuberculosis in the United States and globally, Emerg Infect Dis, 17, 337-342
- Hadler SC, Castro KG, Dowdle W, Hicks L, Noble G, Ridzon R, 2011, Epidemic Intelligence Service investigations of respiratory illness, 1945-2005, Am J Epidemiol, 174, S36-S46
- Lönnroth K, Castro KG, Chakaya JM, Chauhan LS, Floyd K, Glaziou P, Raviglione MC, 2010, Tuberculosis control and elimination 2010-50: cure, care, and social development, Lancet, 375, 1814-1829
- Mazurek GH, Jereb J, Vernon A, LoBue P, Goldberg S, Castro K, 2010, Updated guidelines for using interferon gamma release assays to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection – United States, 2010, MMWR, 59, 1-25
- LoBue P, Sizemore C, Castro KG., 2009, Plan to combat extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: recommendations of the Federal Tuberculosis Task Force, MMWR, 58, 1-43